• Economic Effects

    An important dimension of reinforcement highly relevant to the addiction process and particularly relapse is secondary reinforcement Stewart, Secondary reinforcers in many cases also considered conditioned reinforcers likely drive the majority of reinforcement processes in humans.

    In the specific case of drug addition, cues and contexts that are intimately and repeatedly associated with drug use phd thesis reader often themselves become reinforcing A fundamental piece of Robinson and Berridge's incentive-sensitization theory of addiction posits that the incentive value or attractive nature of such secondary reinforcement processes, in addition to the primary reinforcers themselves, may persist and even become sensitized over time in league with the development of drug addiction Robinson and Berridge, Drug Alcohol Depend.

    Psychosom Med. National Institute of Mental Health. Retrieved 17 June Drug and Alcohol Dependence. Despite this progress, our ability to predict, diagnose, and track addiction in humans based on brain images has been relatively limited.

    The difficulty elucidating such outcomes may be partly due to a relative dearth of research considering neural white matter, which constitutes over half of human brain volume and plays a vital role in governing communication between cortical areas Fields, Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr in German.

    Addictive disorders are chronic relapsing conditions marked by compulsive and often uncontrolled use of psychotropic substances or stimuli.

    In this review, we present and discuss the current specific psychosocial interventions for addictive disorders and their effectiveness. In particular cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing, relapse prevention, the community reinforcement approach, and contingency management were found to be effective. For these psychotherapeutic treatments, mostly moderate effect sizes have been found. Their effectiveness seems to be highest in cannabis dependence. Empirical evidence for dependence on "hard" drugs is the effects of a college education for contingency management, while for alcohol dependence motivational interviewing and the community reinforcement approach show the largest effect sizes.

    Effects of exxon oil spill on commercial fisheries

    Presumably, combinations of different approaches as well as online interventions will bring further progress in the psychosocial treatment of addictive disorders in the future. Environmental Enrichment In humans, non-drug rewards delivered in a contingency management CM format successfully reduced drug dependence In general, CM programs promote drug abstinence through a combination of positive reinforcement for drug-free urine samples.

    For instance, voucher-based reinforcement therapy in which medication compliance, therapy session attendance, and negative drug screenings reinforced with vouchers to local business e. Physical Exercise There is accelerating evidence that physical exercise is a useful treatment for preventing and reducing drug addiction In some individuals, exercise has its own rewarding effects, and a behavioral economic interaction may occur, such that physical and social rewards of exercise can substitute for the rewarding effects of drug abuse.

    The value of this form of treatment for drug addiction in laboratory animals and humans is that exercise, if it can substitute for the rewarding effects of drugs, could be self-maintained over an extended period of time.

    Work to date in [laboratory animals and humans] regarding exercise as a treatment for drug addiction supports this hypothesis. However, a RTC study was recently reported by Rawson et al. Animal and human research on physical exercise as a treatment for stimulant addiction indicates that this is one of the most promising treatments on the horizon. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. Exercise also produces neuroadaptations that may influence an individual's vulnerability to initiate drug use.

    Literature review on purchase order processing with this idea, chronic moderate levels of forced treadmill running blocks not only subsequent methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference, but also stimulant-induced increases in dopamine release in the NAc Chen et al. Exercise has been proposed as a treatment for drug addiction that may reduce drug craving and risk of relapse.

    Although few clinical studies have investigated the efficacy of exercise for preventing relapse, the few studies that have been conducted generally report a reduction in drug craving and better treatment outcomes see Table 4.

    Taken together, these data suggest that the potential benefits of exercise during relapse, particularly for relapse to psychostimulants, may be mediated via chromatin remodeling and possibly lead to greater treatment outcomes.

    Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. The limited research conducted suggests that exercise may be an effective adjunctive treatment for SUDs. In contrast to the scarce intervention trials to date, a relative abundance of literature on the theoretical and practical reasons supporting the investigation of this topic has been published. As briefly reviewed above, a large number of human and rodent studies clearly show that there are sex differences in drug addiction and exercise.

    The sex differences are also found in the effectiveness of exercise effects of exxon oil spill on commercial fisheries drug addiction prevention and treatment, as well as underlying neurobiological mechanisms. The postulate that exercise serves as an ideal intervention for drug addiction has been widely recognized and used in human and animal rehabilitation.

    In particular, more studies on the neurobiological mechanism of exercise and its roles in preventing and treating drug addiction are needed. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy.

    Current Psychiatry Reports. American Family Physician. Srisurapanont M ed. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance in the world, and demand for effective treatment is increasing. However, abstinence rates following behavioral therapies have been modest, and there are no effective pharmacotherapies for the treatment of cannabis addiction.

    Biol Psychiatry A pioneering study revealing both positive and negative modulatory effects of beta-arrestin2 on THC tolerance.

    By demonstrating that tolerance to antinociception is reduced whereas tolerance to catalepsy is enhanced in beta-arrestin2 knockout mice, authors suggest that development of cannabinoid agonists that minimize interactions between CB1Rs and beta-arrestin2 might produce improved cannabinoid analgesics with reduced motor suppression, and be therapeutically beneficial.

    Am J Health Effects of drug addiction Pharm. Nicotinic receptor antagonists as treatments for nicotine abuse. Advances in Pharmacology. Health Technol Assess. Drug Development Research. Eur Addict Res. CNS Drugs. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. Despite concerted efforts to identify a pharmacotherapy for managing stimulant use disorders, no widely effective medications have been approved.

    The effects of a college education

    Cochrane Database Syst. To date, no pharmacological treatment has been approved for [addiction], and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment. When considered together with the rapidly growing literature in the field a compelling case emerges in support of developing TAAR1-selective agonists as medications for preventing relapse to psychostimulant abuse.

    Taken together, the data reviewed here strongly support that TAAR1 is implicated in the functional regulation of monoaminergic systems, especially dopaminergic system, and that TAAR1 serves as a homeostatic "brake" system that is involved in the modulation of dopaminergic activity.

    Existing data provided robust preclinical evidence supporting the development of TAAR1 agonists as potential effects of exxon oil spill on commercial fisheries for psychostimulant abuse and addiction.

    Given that TAAR1 is primarily located in the intracellular compartments and existing TAAR1 agonists are proposed to get access to the receptors by translocation to the cell interior Miller,future drug design and development efforts may need to take strategies of drug delivery into consideration Rajendran et al.

    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. Translation of therapeutic vaccines for addiction, cancer, or other chronic noncommunicable diseases has been slow because only a small subset of immunized subjects achieved effective Ab levels. Epigenetic modifications caused by addictive drugs play an important role in neuronal plasticity and in drug-induced behavioral responses. Importantly, some studies have also correlated the epigenetic regulation induced by AMPH with the behavioral outcomes caused by this drug, suggesting therefore that epigenetics remodeling underlies the behavioral changes induced by AMPH.

    While acute HDAC inhibition enhances the behavioral effects of cocaine or amphetamine 1,3,4,13,14studies suggest that more chronic regimens block psychostimulant-induced plasticity 3,5,11, Studies employing co-administration procedures in which inhibitors are given acutely, just prior to psychostimulant administration, report heightened behavioral responses to the drug 1,3,4,13, In contrast, experimental paradigms like the one employed here, in which HDAC inhibitors are administered more chronically, for several days prior to psychostimulant exposure, show inhibited expression 3 or decreased acquisition of behavioral adaptations to drug 5,11, The clustering of seemingly discrepant results based on experimental methodologies is interesting in light of our present findings.

    Thus, when co-administered acutely, these drugs may have synergistic effects, leading to heightened transcriptional activation of psychostimulant-regulated target genes.

    In contrast, when a psychostimulant is given in the context of prolonged, HDAC inhibitor-induced hyperacetylation, homeostatic processes may direct AcH3 binding to the promoters of genes e.

    Addict Biol. Altogether, our results clearly demonstrated the efficacy of NaB in preventing excessive ethanol intake and relapse and support the hypothesis that HDACi may have a potential use in alcohol addiction treatment. Bibcode : PLoSO. These results provide the first demonstration that HDAC inhibition facilitates the extinction of responding for an intravenously self-administered drug of abuse and further highlight the potential of HDAC inhibitors in the treatment of drug addiction.

    Decreasing HDAC2 reverses both the molecular and behavioral consequences of alcohol addiction, thus implicating this enzyme as a potential treatment target Fig. HDAC2 is also crucial for the induction and maintenance of structural synaptic plasticity in other neurological domains such as memory formation [].

    Taken together, these findings underscore the potential usefulness of HDAC inhibition in treating alcohol use disorders Given the ability of HDAC inhibitors to phd thesis writers in hyderabad modulate the synaptic plasticity of learning and memory [], these drugs hold potential as treatment for substance abuse-related disorders. Our lab and others effects of drug addiction published extensively on the ability of HDAC inhibitors to reverse the gene expression deficits caused by multiple models of alcoholism and alcohol abuse, the results of which were discussed above [25,].

    This data supports further examination of histone modifying agents as potential therapeutic drugs in the treatment of alcohol addiction Future studies should continue to elucidate the specific epigenetic mechanisms underlying compulsive alcohol use and alcoholism, as this is likely to provide new molecular targets for clinical intervention.

    Advanced Biomedical Research. Oct "Alcohol abuse and related factors in Asia". Nov "Epidemiology of internet behaviors and addiction among adolescents in six Asian countries".

    Department of Health and Ageing, Canberra. Oct "Global statistics on alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use: status report. Primary Care. National Institutes of Health.

    Oil spill threatens Gulf Coast fisheries and tourism - MarketWatch

    Only about 10 percent of the 21 million Americans who meet the need for care for an alcohol or drug use disorder receive any form of treatment, and much of the treatment available does not meet standards for evidence-based care. There are many attitudinal and systemic reasons for this treatment gap, including stigma against treating people with addictions and institutional barriers to providing or funding addiction treatment.

    Heroin Abuse Today, heroin effects of exxon oil spill on commercial fisheries the kingpin of opioids, with nearly one million people in the U. Countless heroin users were once prescription painkiller users, however, found that heroin was easier to obtain and more affordable. Heroin is usually smoked or injected. Those who inject this opioid can suffer from collapsed veins and an increased risk for contracting bloodborne diseases like HIV and hepatitis.

    Prescription Painkillers OxyContin, Vicodin, Percocet, and fentanyl are some of the most commonly abused prescription painkillers. When taken as prescribed, each one of these painkillers computer science phd thesis proposal pose a significant medical benefit, however when abused, they can be deadly.

    These medications can be smoked, snorted, swallowed, or injected. Since these opioids are semi-synthetic, it is impossible to know what exact substances are in these drugs, making them extremely risky to continue to abuse. Sedative Abuse Sedatives such as benzodiazepines are primarily used to treat anxiety disorders such as panic attacks, phobias, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Benzodiazepines are highly effective in reducing anxiety and can also aid in helping individuals who suffer from sleep problems or seizures.

    However, they are very popular substances of abuse due to the feelings of detachment and relaxation that they produce. Xanax, Ativan, and Valium Xanax, Ativan, and Valium are benzodiazepines that work to calm the mind and body. When an individual consumes one or more of these benzodiazepines, he or she effects of drug addiction become almost instantly relaxed. Unfortunately, when benzodiazepines like these are abused, individuals are at risk for experiencing excessive sleepiness, drowsiness, and respiratory depression.

    While there are countless physical dangers of abusing hallucinations, one of the most pressing areas of concern is that someone who is under the influence of a hallucinogen can behave in a manner that is possibly dangerous or even deadly. Ecstasy Abuse When ecstasy is abused, individuals experience delusions and hallucinations that can be both visual and auditory.

    Those who are under the influence explain being on ecstasy as being in a state of complete euphoria. But when this drug is abused, several negative effects can occur, including dehydration that can be life-threatening.

    The Solution Any and all types of drug abuse should be taken seriously. Goldberg, M. Rahman, and L. View at: Google Scholar L. Pagliaro and A. Fieldman, S. Jerrold, and L. Evins, A. Green, J. Kane, and R. View at: Google Scholar P. Moore and B. Baltar, M. Seco, and J. Vasica and C. View at: Google Scholar D.

    O'Brien, A. Childress, A. McLellan, and R. View at: Google Scholar G. Nesse and K. Lubman, M. Kettle et al. Volkow and T. View at: Google Scholar N. View at: Google Scholar B. Franklin, P. Acton, J. Maldjian et al. Fotros, K. Casey, K. Larcher et al. Borders, B. Booth, R. Falck, C. Leukefeld, J. Wang, and R. Bateman and C. View at: Google Scholar PhyOrg. View at: Google Scholar J.

    Both cocaine powder and crack can also be prepared for injecting. Cocaine gives the user energy, a feeling of happiness and being wide awake, and an overconfidence that can lead to taking risks. If you take cocaine, it's possible to die of an overdose from overstimulating the heart and nervous system, which can lead to a heart attack.

    It can be more risky if mixed with alcohol. Taking cocaine is particularly risky if you have high blood pressure or already have a heart condition. If you're pregnant, cocaine can harm your baby and even cause miscarriage. If you've had previous mental health problems, it can increase the chance of these returning. If you snort cocaine, it can damage the cartilage of your nose over time. Yes, cocaine is highly addictive and can cause a very strong psychological dependence.

    For advice on getting help for cocaine addiction, go to Cocaine: get help. The Cocaine Anonymous website also offers further advice. It's also known as MDMA or "crystal".

    5 Environmental Consequences of Oil Spills

    Ecstasy can make you feel alert, affectionate and chatty, and can make music and colours seem more intense. Taking ecstasy can also cause anxiety, confusion, paranoia and even psychosis. Long-term use has been linked with memory problems, depression and anxiety. Ecstasy use affects the body's temperature control and can lead to dangerous overheating and dehydration.

    But a balance is important as drinking too much fluid can also be very dangerous for the brain, particularly because ecstasy tends to stop your body producing enough urine, so your body retains the fluid. Ecstasy can be addictive, as users can develop a psychological dependence on this drug.

    In the past 12 months,people aged 12 or older have used heroin for the first time. Every day, more than 90 Americans die after overdosing on opioids. This area of the brain affects instinct and mood. Drugs target this system, which causes large amounts of dopamine-a brain chemical that helps regulate emotions and feelings of pleasure-to flood the brain.

    Although initial drug use may be voluntary, drugs can alter brain chemistry. It can lead to intense cravings and compulsive drug use. Over time, this behavior can turn into a substance dependency or drug and alcohol addiction. These can influence mood, behavior and other cognitive function. Brain damage may also occur through alcohol-induced nutrition deficiencies, alcohol-induced seizures and liver disease. In pregnant women, alcohol exposure can impact the brains of unborn babies, resulting in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    It is reported that alcohol-induced brain problems can often be corrected with proper treatment.Platt and other people in the Alaskan village of about 2, people say they still are suffering economically and emotionally 21 years after the oil disaster. About 3, miles away, an oil leak that started last month in the Gulf of Mexico is threatening the Gulf Coast.

    The average fisherman suffered a 30 percent loss in income after the spill, but those who specialized in just herring lost everything, Kopchak said. Sociologists who spent years around the Sound after the disaster concluded that a fifth of all the area's commercial fishermen suffered severe anxiety, and as many as 40 percent suffered from severe depression. People lost things," said Mike Webber, a Cordova fisherman.

    He said perhaps 30 to 40 families have left Cordova since the disaster. Webber, who fished for herring and salmon before the spill and continued fishing for salmon in the years after, said he began drinking heavily after He then lost his marriage. When oil eventually stops floating on the water's surface and begins to sink into the marine environment, it can have similar damaging effects on fragile underwater ecosystems, killing or contaminating fish and smaller organisms that are essential links in the global food chain.

    Despite massive clean-up efforts following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, for example, a study conducted by the National Essay on friendship of mice and men and Atmospheric Administration NOAA found that 26, gallons of oil were still trapped in the sand along the Alaska shoreline. Oil-covered birds are a effects of drug addiction symbol of environmental damage wreaked by oil spills.

    Some species of shore birds might escape by relocating if they sense danger in time, but sea birds that swim and dive for their food are most likely to be covered in oil following a spill. Oil spills also damage nesting grounds, potentially causing serious long-term effects on entire species.

    The BP Deepwater Horizon offshore oil spill in the Gulf of Mexicofor example, occurred during prime mating and nesting season for many bird and marine species, and long-term environmental consequences of that spill won't be known for years.

    Effects of drug addiction

    Oil spills can disrupt migratory patterns by contaminating areas where migrating birds normally stop. Even a small amount of oil can be deadly to a bird. By coating feathers, oil not only makes flying impossible but also destroys birds' natural waterproofing and insulation, leaving them vulnerable to hypothermia or overheating.

    Oil pollution toxicity to marine fish has been observed from oil spills such as the Exxon Valdez disaster, and from nonpoint sources, such as surface runoffwhich is the largest source of oil pollution in marine waters. Crude oil entering waterways from spills or runoff contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHsthe most toxic components of oil. The common routes are ingestionventilation of the gills, and dermal uptake.

    Fish exposed to these PAHs exhibit an array of toxic effects including genetic damagemorphological deformities, altered growth and development, decreased body size, inhibited swimming abilities and mortality. Research on the environmental impact of the petroleum industry began in earnest, during the mid to late 20th century, as the oil industry developed and expanded.

    Focused research on oil pollution toxicity to fish began in earnest inafter the Exxon Valdez tanker struck a reef in Prince William SoundAlaska and spilled approximately 11 million gallons of crude oil into the surrounding water. Pacific herring spawn in the intertidal and subtidal zones, making the vulnerable eggs easily exposed to pollution.

    After April 20,when an explosion on the Deepwater Horizon Macondo oil drilling platform triggered the largest oil spill in US history, another opportunity for oil toxicity research was presented. Oil spills, as well daily oil runoff from urbanized areas can lead to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon PAHs entering marine ecosystems. Once PAHs enter the marine environment, fish can be exposed to them via ingestion, ventilation of the gills, and dermal uptake. Habitat can be a major deciding factor for the route of exposure.

    For example, demersal fish or fish that consume demersal fish are highly likely to ingest PAHs that have sorbed to the sediment, whereas fish that swim at the surface are at a higher risk for dermal exposure. For instance, PAHs with lower molecular weight are more bioavailable because they dissolve more readily in water and are therefore more bioavailable for fish within the water column.

    Similarly, hydrophilic PAHs are more bioavailable for uptake by fish. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email. Please, specify your valid email address. Remember that this is just a sample essay and since it might not be original, we a dissertation upon roast pig not recommend to submit it.

    However, we might edit this sample to provide you with a plagiarism-free paper. Search for: Search. Short term effects The very visible deaths of tens of thousands of seabirds, thousands of sea otters, hundreds of harbor seals and eagles and over 20 orca whales gained the intense attention of the public. Long term effects Numerous studies in recent years have highlighted ongoing effects of the spill-still felt many years after obvious effects faded in Prince William Sound.

    Changes after the spill The shock of the Effects of drug addiction Valdez spill spurred a large number of regulatory changes within the oil industry and the state. Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

    The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    Check it out. We can't stand spam as much as you do No, thanks. I prefer suffering on my own. However, we might edit this sample to provide you with a plagiarism-free paper Edit this sample. Unique Academic Content.

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